Having a successful bitter gourd garden can be easy if you follow the right gardening tips. For instance, you can protect your garden from pests by choosing the correct varieties of bitter gourds. You can also water your plants regularly and apply fertilizers.
Chinese vs Indian varieties
Earlier studies have characterized the genetic diversity of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia). These studies have been conducted in India and China. In addition, a germplasm collection has been compiled at the World Vegetable Center in Taiwan. This collection comprises commercial cultivars and breeding lines. The accessions in the collection are grouped into three subpopulations, based on their fruit shape.
Most of the accessions produced spindle-shaped fruit. A small number of accessions produced cylindrical fruit. Some genotypes produced both white and green fruits. A landrace from Laos was found to be genetically distinct from the rest of the accessions.
In Thailand, 114 cultigens were evaluated. Their genetic diversity was characterized by SSR (simple sequence repeat) analysis. DNA was isolated from fresh tissue of young leaves. A protocol was developed to identify alleles using 50 SSR markers. A total of 202 alleles were detected.
Choosing the right fertilizer for bitter gourd gardening can make a huge difference in your fruit production. The type of fertilizer you use depends on the variety you are growing and the climate you live in.
If you want to maximize your fruit yield, it is important that you choose a fertilizer that contains a combination of nitrogen and potassium. These nutrients promote healthy growth and encourage the plant to produce fruit.
You can also grow bitter gourds with an organic fertilizer. An organic fertilizer will not damage the plant and is safe for the environment. However, it may not give the same quality fruit as a chemical fertilizer.
When choosing a fertilizer for bitter gourds, you should choose a high-potassium fertilizer. You can add comfrey tea or banana peels to your soil to increase potassium. Other potassium-rich fertilizers include potassium nitrate and potash.
Whether you are growing bitter gourds indoors or out, it is important to take care of them properly. These plants need a lot of water to grow and thrive. The amount of water you provide to them depends on the age and size of the plant. You can also fertilize them with seaweed solution.
The ground you use to grow bitter gourds should be rich in nutrients. This is especially important for mature plants. Adding a slow-release fertilizer to the soil will promote healthy growth. You should also make sure that the soil is always well drained. This will prevent fungal diseases from infecting the roots.
When you are watering the bitter gourds, ensure that you are doing so at the right time. You can easily check the moisture of the soil by pressing your index finger in the dirt two to three inches deep. If the soil is dry, you need to water it more often.
Several insect pests affect the bitter gourd. They damage the fruit and prevent its proper maturation. They can also cause wilting, molds, and fungal diseases. In order to avoid these problems, you need to maintain a clean garden.
Aphids are one of the most common pests. They congregate on the underside of the plant leaves and leave behind a sticky sap. They can be easily controlled by using a systemic insecticide.
Fruit fly is another common pest. Its larvae bury themselves 5 cm deep into the soil, forming galleries that allow the flies to feed on the fruit. Their eggs hatch in 1-9 days. They are most prevalent during the rainy season. The adult flies suck the sap from the plant and spread important viral diseases.
Generally, the bitter gourd is considered to be a vine plant and it needs a lot of space to grow. You can use a trellis or a net to support the plant. It also requires a good amount of sunlight, humidity and warm temperatures. It can also be grown in containers.
Before harvesting the bitter gourd, you need to check the soil and fertilize it with organic matter. You can also apply a liquid seaweed fertilizer. This helps increase the size of the fruits. You can apply it once a month.
In order to grow the bitter gourd, you need to have a warm, humid climate. The temperature should be around 70°F. In order to avoid fungal diseases, it is recommended to keep the soil evenly moist.